Maude Jacquot
Post Doctorante
Bluetongue – Lyme disease
INRAE
Site de Theix
Tél. 04.73.62.41.48
mail : maude.jacquot [at] inrae.fr


BIOGRAPHY

Since March 2019

Sept 2018 – March 2019

2015-2018

2011-2014

  • PhD in Genetic and Physiology: Genomic diversity of pathogenic bacteria in the Borrelia burgdorferispecies complex: evolution and molecular epidemiology
    Animal Epidemiology Unit, INRA, Clermont-Ferrand, France – Blaise Pascal University, Clermont-Ferrand, France

2009-2011

  • MSc in Genetic and Physiology
    Speciality Analysis and Data Modelling for Life Sciences, Blaise Pascal University, Clermont-Ferrand, France

2006-2009

RESEARCH INTERESTS

Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of human and animal morbidity, and they have impacts on the economy, public health, and the environment. By studying the diversity of the pathogens responsible for these diseases we can get further insights into their spread and persistence within host communities and among vectors and we may glean valuable information that will aid prevention and control efforts. I am particularly interested in bacterial and viral pathogen evolution and infectious diseases dynamics in host and vector populations. My research focuses on Bluetongue and Lyme disease that are both caused by vector-borne agents (more details below).

Phylogeography and transmission dynamics of Bluetongue virus

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-borne, segmented RNA virus, responsible for a globally important disease in livestock. In recent decades, repeated incursions of BTV into Europe have caused major outbreaks and significant economic damage. However, the major drivers behind BTV emergence, spread and persistence remain poorly understood. I’m applying phylogeographic and coalescent-based approaches to genomic data in order to reveal patterns and environmental drivers of BTV spatial spread and persistence. ‌

Molecular epidemiology and evolution of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., the lyme disease agent

During my thesis, I became particularly interested in the pathogen(s) responsible for Lyme disease. This disease is caused by bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) species complex that are transmitted by ticks (during their blood meals) and that can infect several vertebrate host species. When we analyzed the genetic diversity present in 63 B. burgdorferi s.l. strains, whose genomes had been sequenced, we found that there was a significant degree of genetic differenciation among the different genospecies making up the complex. Our results suggest that the fact that these different bacterial groups infect different ranges of hosts –B. burgdorferi s.s. is mainly a pathogen of small mammals and B.garinii is primarily associated with birds- lead to distinct population dynamics. Moreover, thanks to the high-throughput sequencing of two genetic markers, I have been able to show that, at an intraspecific level, certain B. burgdorferi genotypes are associated with specific rodent species. Finally, using the pathogen diversity observed in rodents and ticks, we employed a modeling approach to estimate the human disease risks presented by an introduced host species (the Siberian chipmunk) and found that these risks could be significant.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Nomikou,K.,Bréard, E., Zientara, S., da Silva Filipe, A., Hoffmann, B., Jacquot, M. et al.. “Frozen evolution” of an RNA virus suggests accidental release as a potential cause of arbovirus re-emergence. PLoS Biology, Public Library of Science, 2020, 18 (4), pp.e3000673. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000673⟩ [hal-02558321]

Jacquot, M., Rao, P. P., Yadav, S., Nomikou, K., Maan, S., Jyothi, Y. K., Reddy, N., Putty, K., Hemadri, Singh, K. P., Maan, Hegde, Mertens, P., Biek, R. (2019). Contrasting selective patterns across the segmented genome of bluetongue virus in a global reassortment hotspot. Virus Evolution, 5 (2). doi: 10.1093/ve/vez027[ProdInra]

Fountain-Jones, N. M., Packer, C., Jacquot, M., Blanchet, F., Terio, K., Craft (2019). Endemic infection can shape exposure to novel pathogens: pathogen co-occurrence networks in the Serengeti lions. Ecology Letters.
doi: 10.1111/ele.13250[ProdInra]

Fountain-Jones, N. M., Packer, C., Jacquot, M., Blanchet, G., Terio, K., Craft, M. Chronic infections can shape epidemic exposure: pathogen co-occurrence networks in the Serengeti lions. bioRxiv. 2018:Preprint;
doi: 10.1101/370841.[ProdInra]

Fountain-Jones, N. M., Packer, C., Troyer, J. L., VanderWaal, K., Robinson, S., Jacquot, M., Craft, M. E. Linking social and spatial networks to viral community phylogenetics reveals subtype-specific transmission dynamics in African lions. Journal of Animal Ecology. 2017;86 6:1469-1482; doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12751[ProdInra]

Jacquot, M., Nomikou, K., Palmarini, M., Mertens, P., Biek, R. Bluetongue virus spread in Europe is a consequence of climatic, landscape and vertebrate host factors as revealed by phylogeographic inference. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2017;284 1864; doi: 10.1098/rspb.2017.0919[ProdInra]

Vourc’h, G., Abrial, D., Bord, S., Jacquot, M., Masséglia, S., Poux, V., Pisanu, B., Bailly, X., Chapuis, J.-L. Mapping human risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in a periurban forest in France. Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases. 2016;7:644-652; doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.02.008[ProdInra]

Jacquot, M., Abrial, D., Gasqui, P., Bord, S., Marsot, M., Masséglia, S., Pion, A., Poux, V., Zilliox, L., Chapuis, J.-L., Vourc’h, G., Bailly, X. Multiple independent transmission cycles of a tick-borne pathogen within a local host community. Scientific Reports. 2016;6:31273; doi: 10.1038/srep31273[ProdInra]

Jacquot, M., Gonnet, M., Ferquel, E., Abrial, D., Claude, A., Gasqui, P., Choumet, V., Charras-Garrido, M., Garnier, M., Faure, B., Sertour, N., Dorr, N., De Goër, J., Vourc’h, G., Bailly, X. Comparative population genomics of the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex reveals high degree of genetic isolation among species and underscores benefits and constraints to studying intra-specific epidemiological processes. Plos One. 2014;9 4;
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094384[ProdInra]

Jacquot, M., Bisseux, M., Abrial, D., Marsot, M., Ferquel, E., Chapuis, J.-L., Vourc’h, G., Bailly, X. High-throughput sequence typing reveals genetic differentiation and host specialization among populations of the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex that infect rodents. Plos One. 2014;9 2:e88581; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088581[ProdInra]

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